It is broadly recognized that 21st century may be driven by knowledge, and the competitive advantage of the nation in the global economy may be sustained by an innovative and focused education agenda. In order to meet the challenges of India, several countries, including India, have set their minds for the expansion of the educational systems. There was a rising realization that the availability of the educational opportunities to all the sections of this society, irrespective of the social status, caste, class, gender, and religion, ensure non-discriminatory distribution of the educational opportunities and the political and the socio-economic gains ensuing from it.
The first Prime Minister of India, Late Jawaharlal Nehru and the members of the Constituent Assembly are responsible for framing the Indian Constitution Act for dealing with the social and the educational inequalities of discrimination and illiteracy by unambiguously prohibiting inequity in educational field on the grounds of caste, sex, religion, and race of birth. The present educational policy as related to the structure and access is entirely based on the goals of the recommendations of D.C Kothari Commission. The NPE called for a standard educational structure that is based on the 10+2+3-year model. The first ten years were considered to be non-selective. After getting education for the first ten years, the system would become extremely selective and give opportunities in both the vocational and the academic streams. Basically, there are two terms used in India for the vocational education system, one is the vocational education and the other is the vocational training.
Vocational education is specifically referred to the vocational course offered in the schools at standard 11 and 12 under the centrally sponsored plan termed as ‘Vocationalization of Secondary Education’. The VEP or the Vocational Education Programme was introduced in the year 1976-1977 under the vocationalization programme of higher secondary education in the general education institutes. The National working team on VEP reviewed the programme in India and developed the guidelines for expanding the programme. The recommendations lead to the development of the CSS that is the Centrally Sponsored Scheme on vocationalization of secondary education that was first time implemented in the year 1988.